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Therefore, this paper attempts to reconstruct the phylogeny of the tribe using four genes and, afterward, focuses on the tribe Thermopsideae biogeography by employing biogeographical molecular dating and S-DIVA approaches to explore the spatiotemporal origin and evolution of Thermopsideae and its evolutionary dynamics; to confirm the Madrean-Tethyan disjunction using Thermopsideae; and to discuss the East Asia-North America disjunction, Central Asian endemism, QTP endemism, and so forth. More outgroup species were used in ITS phylogeny; also see S 2.
We sampled 32 individuals of 20 species, mainly from China, belonging to three genera, Thermopsis, Piptanthus, and Ammopiptanthus of Thermopsideae; see Table 1. Total genomic DNA was extracted using the CTAB method .
The occurrence of Sophora in the Oligocene-Miocene is credible, since its fossils are known from the Eocene of eastern Siberia and North America [42, 43].
In China, Sophora fossils have been found in Oligocene strata from Heilongjiang province, the Miocene from Shandong and Yunnan provinces, and Pliocene from Shanxi province [42, 43].
Sequencing reactions were performed by a company specializing in the procedure (Beijing Sanbo Biological Engineering Technology and Service Corporation, China).However, only three species of Thermopsideae were sampled. Xie and Yang  estimated Ammopiptanthus to have originated in early Miocene ca. Many studies have speculated that Piptanthus, Ammopiptanthus, Thermopsis, and so forth in the tribe originated in the Tertiary [14, 26–29], but the exact time and place of origin have remained poorly understood.In summary, Thermopsideae contains many attractive biogeographical topics, Central Asia, East Asia, and QTP endemism and Madrean-Tethyan disjunction, East Asia-North America disjunction, Tertiary origin, and so forth. microphylla), Podalyria (Podalyrieae), and Cytisus (Genisteae); see Supplementary Material S 1 available online at Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810001, China Received 9 September 2014; Revised 20 December 2014; Accepted 8 January 2015Academic Editor: Peter F. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and East Asia-North America disjunction, with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia.
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Biogeographically, the fossil record indicates that the three legume subfamilies appeared in the early Eocene, and extensive diversification and origin of most of the woody legume lineages occurred in the middle Eocene . From macrofossils of leaves and pods, the origin of legumes appears unlikely to have been much before 60 Ma, and, from that time, a rapid diversification among major clades took place .